डिप्लोमा इन ऑफिस मैनेजमेंट एण्ड अकाउटिंग

डिप्लोमा इन ऑफिस मैनेजमेंट एण्ड अकाउटिंग

Full Stack Web Development with Laravel

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Internet and terminologies


It is a group of devices connected with each other.

Types of network

PAN(Personal area network)

The connection between personal devices like laptops to smart devices is called PAN.


Connection of devices 


It stands for CAMPUS AREA NETWORK, it is greater than LAN and smaller than MAN.


It stands for Metropolitan Area Network, it is greater than CAN and smaller than WAN.


It stands for Wide Area Network, it is a collection of MAN.

Networking devices


Modem(modulator/demodulator) device that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone lines. this device converts the digital signal into an analog signal and vice versa. 


This device is used to connect several computer devices together.


This device is used to connect several computer devices together over a network, it is used on long network lines, it receives, and retransmit electronic signals.


This device is used to connect computers to the internet.


This electronic device connects multiple individual networks.


This device makes reliable communication between different configuration networks.


Protocol means rules and regulations, define rules of communication between network devices.

IP(Internet protocol)

This protocol responsible to send and receive data from one computer to another in the internet.
Data transfer over internet in the form of packet where the address of  sender and receiver labelled in packet.

TCP(Transmission control packet)

This protocol puts the packet in the right order.


It is a set of rules for transferring files(text, graphics, images, sound, videos, etc.)

Networking Media

Wired media

Twisted pair cable

Twisted pair cable is made up of two plastic insulated copper wire that are twisted on each other to make a single wire.

Coaxial cable

It is made of hard copper wire, covered by PVC, coaxial cable able to transfer high frequency signals.

Optical fiber cable

These wires made of ultra thin glass fibres, optical fiber cable are able to transmit light signals.

Wireless media


It is short-range wireless technology used for communication between devices,  it has range about 10m or other.


This technology uses infrared light to send data. we are using this technology in every day life like TV/AC remotes, and wirelss speakers. infrared light transmit data with air but unable to penetrate the walls.


Wireless fidelity
This is very popular technology which allow electronic devices transmit data over network and device can connect with internet via access point that is called hotspot .

Networking terminology


it is a collection of interconnected networks, it is used by any company or and organization, this network is only used by members of that organisation and not accessible by outside one.


it is network of networks, it is publicaly accessible, and transmit data using IP.


Amount of data transmitted in certain amount of time, Generally bandwidth expressed as bps, kbps, mbps, gbps.


Internet service provide, which provide services to use internet.


Collection of web pages.

Web portal

It is a special website that collection information from different resources.

Web page

It is single page in website, that is accessible using browser only.

Home page

First page of any website is also called home page.


It is an address what you type at browser to access the resource.

Numbering addressing system / ip address

Combinatioin of unique number is used to design the address of website, this unique number is known as IP address, The IP address can be use directly instead of website letter name. it is combination of four numbers and each number is separated with period (.) each number can be zero to 255. 
for example

Letter addressing system

It is a system which provide unique name to the website, this is called DNS (domain name system)
DNS translates website hostnames into human readable language. for example www.capscom-technology.com will automatically converted into ip address, so as users we just need to remember these names of website instead of combination of numbers, which is almost impossible to remember.
Last two/three letter of any domain represent kind of organisation.
  • .edu
  • .gov
  • .net
  • .in
  • .org
  • .com
  • .mil
  • .uk
  • .ca
  • .fr
  • .us
  • .jp

Types of apps

Native apps

Native apps are developed for specific platform like only android or only ios, these apps are much faster than hybrid apps.

Hybrid apps

Hybrid apps are developed for multi platform like one app for both android and ios.
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