Basic computer organization


All computer systems perform the five basic functions for converting raw input data into useful information and presenting it to a user:
  1. Inputting
    It is the process of entering data and instructions into a computer system.
  2. Storing
    It is the process of saving data and instructions to make them readily available for initial or additional processing as and when required.
  3. Processing
    Performing arithmetic operations or logical operations on data.
  4. Outputting
    It is the process of producing useful information or results for a user.
  5. Controlling
    Directing the manner and sequence in which the above operations are performed is known as controlling.


Input unit is defined as an input device,a piece of computer hardware apparatus used to supply a data processing system including a computer or information device with control and data signals.Ex:-mouse and keyboard.
  1. It accepts instructions and data from outside world,
  2. It converts these instructions and data in computer acceptable form,
  3. It supplies the converted instructions and data to the storage unit for storage and further processing.


In computers,a unit which delivers information from the computer to an external device or from internal storage to external storage.Ex:-monitor and speaker. 
  1. It accepts the produced results,which are in coded form,
  2. It converts these coded results to human acceptable form, 
  3. It supplies the converted results to outside world.


A storage unit is any computing hardware that is used for storing,porting and extracting data files and objects.It can hold and store information both temporarily and permanently.
A storage unit holds:-
  1. The data and instructions required for processing,
  2. Intermediate results of processing,
  3. Final results of processing,before the system releases them to an output unit.
Storage unit are of two types:-
Primary storage:-
It is also known as main memory.Primary storage is the collective methods and technologies used to capture and retain digital information that is in active use and critical for an organizations operations.Ex:-RAM,ROM and flash memory.
Secondary storage:-
It is also known as auxiliary storage.A secondary storage device refers to any non-volatile storage device that is internal or external to the computer.Ex:-hard disk,CD,DVD,SSD. 


A computer performs all calculation and comparison(decision making) operations in the ALU. An ALU performs arithmetic(addition,subtraction,multiplication and division) and logic(NOT,AND,and OR) operations.


The control unit is a component of a computers central processing unit that directs the operation of the processor.A CU uses a binary decoder to convert coded instructions into timing and control signals that direct the operation of the other units.


Control unit(CU) and Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) of a computer system are together known as the Central Processing Unit(CPU).It is the brain of a computer system.It also referred as processor.
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